Introduction – A 65-year-old man from Gujarat who is a heart patient has been identified with EMM negative blood group. Henceforth, he is India’s first and world’s tenth case of a unique blood group that cannot be classified into the existing ‘A’, ‘B’ groups. ‘, ‘O’ or ‘AB’.

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Rare Blood Group Discovered In Rajkot Man

Rare Blood Group Discovered In Rajkot Man

A 65-year-old resident of Rajkot suffered a setback when he could not find blood for a 2020 heart surgery that matched his blood type. His known blood type was AB-positive, a known universal acceptor, which added to the surprise. But after a long search, he found the first EMM-negative blood case in India, the 11th documented occurrence of the blood group worldwide.

The Emm-negative blood type is a scarce blood type, with only ten known cases globally before this study. Here, we present the 11th case of Emm-negative blood group, which was identified in a 32-year-old female patient.

The blood samples of the Rajkot man was sent to Surat for advance analysis and eventually to a facility in the US. Hence, the result indicated that the blood lacked the EMM phenotype. However, which is present in almost all human red blood cells (RBC). Thus, its absence mad it difficult to match with any existing samples.

Moreover, there was no history of transfusion in the patient and it happened naturally. That made the case more suspicious by the medical team. When done family survey among his relatives, only his brother has a similar blood type, but not the same said Dr.Shah – Adding in the case of Rajkot an.

About Emm Negative Blood Group

About Emm Negative Blood Group

Furthermore, in this blog we provide a comprehensive case analysis, discuss the clinical implications of this rare blood group, and compare the presented case with ten previously documented examples. However, the study aims to contribute to the understanding of EMM negative blood group and guide its management in transfusion medicine.

However, Blood groups are defined presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBC). Initially, more than 300 life blood group antigens have identified, although the ABO and Rh systems are the best known. Hence, the emm-negative blood group is a rare blood group characterized the absence of Emm antigens belonging to Donblock (DO) blood group system. The ART4 gene encodes the Emm antigen, the lack of which can cause immunological reactions in the transfusion setting.

Method used To Analyze the Emm Negative Blood Group

Method to Analyze the Emm Negative Blood Group

Moreover, the patient was a 32-year-old woman who presented with severe anemia. Hence, the Blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, including complete blood count (CBC), blood grouping and antibody screening. Furthermore, research is done using molecular and serological technique. To confirm Emm’s negative blood type.

Result of the Emm Negative Blood Group

Initially, the blood group of the patient was AB and RhD positive. serological tests for blood group antigens showed a weak response to anti-Emm. Molecular testing confirmed the absence of Emm antigen caused by homozygous mutations in the ART4 gene. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only ten other cases of Emm-negative blood type, the 11th reported worldwide.


Although, the rarity of Emm-negative blood groups poses a challenge to transfusion medicine. Patients with this blood group can develop anti-Emm antibodies. Moreover, that can cause a hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) if they receive Emm-positive blood. Therefore, screening for the presence of anti-Emm antibodies and identifying Emm-negative blood donors is very important in these patients.

However, the identification of the 11th case of the Emm-negative blood group contributes to our understanding of this rare blood group and its clinical significance. Further research and collaboration between blood banks and medical institutions are necessary to ensure proper management of these patients, including the identification of Emm-negative blood donors and the development of transfusion guidelines.

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